Table 1.

List of bottleneck and essential enzymes on the PPi-pathway intersection nodes.

ClassPathwaySub-pathwayHuman geneSars geneMacrophageEpithelial cell
BiosynthesisAmino acidsL-selenocysteine biosynthesisSEPSECSNsp8YN
BiosynthesisAmino acidsCysteine, and methionineMAT2BNsp9YY
BiosynthesisFatty acidsFatty acid and long fatty acid biosynthesisSLC27A2Nsp2YY
BiosynthesisFatty acidsFatty acid and long fatty acid biosynthesisACSL3Nsp7YN
BiosynthesisFatty acidsStearate biosynthesisSLC27A2Nsp2YY
BiosynthesisFatty acidsStearate biosynthesisACSL3Nsp7YY
BiosynthesisCarbohydrate biosynthesisGlycan and oligosaccharide biosynthesisALG11Nsp4YY
BiosynthesisCarbohydrate biosynthesisGlycanHS2ST1Orf8aYY
BiosynthesisCarbohydrate biosynthesisGlycanMOGSNsp7YY
BiosynthesisCarbohydrate biosynthesisGlycan and oligosaccharide biosynthesisALG5ORF3aYY
BiosynthesisCarbohydrate biosynthesisGlycan, oligosaccharide, and glycosaminoglycan biosynthesisCHPFORF8aYY
BiosynthesisCarbohydrate biosynthesisGlycan, oligosaccharide, and glycosaminoglycan biosynthesisHS6ST2ORF8aYY
BiosynthesisCofactorsVitamin D3 biosynthesisPORNsp2YY
BiosynthesisCofactorsVitamin K epoxide cycleGGCXMain proteaseNY
BiosynthesisHormonesC20 prostanoid biosynthesisPTGES2Nsp7YY
BiosynthesistRNA chargingtRNA chargingTARS2Main proteaseYY
DegradationAmino acidsL-lysine degradationAASSMain proteaseNY
DegradationAmino acidsL-tryptophan degradationPORNsp2YY
DegradationAmino acidsL-methionine degradationMAT2BMain proteaseYY
DegradationFatty acidsCeramide and sphingolipid recyclingSLC27A2Nsp2YY
DegradationFatty acidsCeramide and sphingolipid recyclingPORNsp2YY
DegradationFatty acidsCeramide and sphingolipid recyclingACSL3Nsp7YY
DegradationFatty acidsPhospholipasesPLD3ORF8aYY
DegradationAmine degradationDopamine degradationCOMTNsp7YY
DegradationHormonesHemeHMOX1ORF3aYY
DegradationHormonesmelatoninPORNsp2YY
DegradationHormonesAdrenalinCOMTNsp2YY
DegradationHormonesL-dopa degradationCOMTNsp2YY