Table 1.

Pathogens with their respective host range used in this study.

Host rangeNiche of infectionType of pathogenReference or source
Specialist/host adapted (species)Generalist
L. longbeachae (Homo sapiens)L. pneumophilaFacultative intracellular, lung environmentBacteria, Gram negative(Marra & Shuman, 1992; Whiley & Bentham, 2011)a
S. enterica Typhi (H. sapiens)S. enterica TyphimuriumFacultative intracellular, systemicBacteria, Gram negative(Sabbagh et al, 2010)a
V. cholerae O1 (H. sapiens)V. vulnificusExtracellular, mucosal pathogenBacteria, Gram negative(Jones & Oliver, 2009; Safa et al, 2010)a
M. leprae (H. sapiens)M. bovisIntracellular, systemic and lung environmentBacteria, actinobacteria(Mikota & Maslow, 2011; Legendre et al, 2012)a
B. quintana (H. sapiens)B. henselaeFacultative intracellular, vector transmissible, systemicBacteria, Gram negative(Chomel et al, 2004; Veracx & Raoult, 2012)a
B. recurrentis (H. sapiens)B. burgdorferiVector transmissible/extracellular, systemicBacteria, spirochete Systemic(Veracx & Raoult, 2012)a,b
C. pneumonia (H. sapiens)C. trachomatisObligate intracellular, lung environment/sexually transmissible, eye infectionsBacteria(Beare et al, 2011)a
R. prowazekii (H. sapiens)R. rickettsiiObligate intracellular, systemicBacteria, Gram negative(Beare et al, 2011)a
C. rodentium (Mus musculus)C. freundiiExtracellular, mucosal pathogenBacteria, Gram negative(Borenshtein et al, 2008; Bai et al, 2012)a,c
S. enterica Gallinarum (Gallus gallus)S. enterica EnteritidisFacultative intracellular, systemic/mucosal environmentBacteria, Gram negative(Braden, 2006; Blondel et al, 2013)d
Streptococcus pyogenes (H. sapiens)S. dysgalactiaeExtracellularBacteria, Gram positive(Cunningham, 2000; Abdelsalam et al, 2013)a
Bacillus cereus (human opportunistic)B. anthracisExtracellular/obligate intracellularBacteria, Gram positive(Kotiranta et al, 2000; Spencer, 2003)a
M. intracellulare (H. sapiens)M. aviumIntracellular, and systemic and lung environmentBacteria, actinobacteria(Claeys & Robinson, 2018)a
C. albicans (H. sapiens)C. glabrataExtracellularFungus(Brunke & Hube, 2013; Mayer et al, 2013)e
P. falciparum (H. sapiens)B. microtiVector transmissible/extracellular and intracellularUnicellular protozoa(Gray et al, 2010; Prugnolle et al, 2011)
W. bancrofti (H. sapiens)A. suumVector transmissible/egg consumption/extracellularNematode(Woolhouse et al, 2001; Nejsum et al, 2012)